What can we infer from the book of Hebrews itself? While we wait for Warren to complete writing his commentary on the next passage, it might interest you that the author of the letter to the Hebrews will remain a mystery. 3:12. Copyright © 2021, Bible Study Tools. 6:4-6. Moreover, as a Jewish believer (Acts 18:24), he had the thorough knowledge of the Old Testament Scriptures in their Greek version that the book of Hebrews exclusively uses. The most persuasive argument against Pauline authorship. Martin Luther believed Apollos was the author. During the start of the early church, a number of the Jewish converts tried to convince the Gentile converts of Christianity that they needed to be circumcised (Ephesians 2:11). That meant they had a certain authority to write the book. Question: "Who wrote the Book of Hebrews? While Timothy was a close associate of Paul, he was from Lystra, a small town in Asia Minor where it is unlikely he could have received the formal rhetorical training reflected in Hebrews. Hebrews is probably therefore a written homily, to which the author gave an epistolary ending (Heb 13:22–25). God purposefully withheld the name of the human instrument He used. The Epistle to the Hebrews of the Christian Bible is one of the New Testament books whose canonicity was disputed. As noted above, the stylistic differences influenced Origen, Clement’s student, to such a degree that he finally concluded: “Who wrote the epistle only God knows. Paul? Get started with a free online course. “He has made us competent as ministers of a new covenant — not of the letter but of the Spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.”, Hebrews 10:14 Proud member We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. Some early Church fathers believed the author to be St. Paul. Priscilla also did spend a great deal of time with Paul and his companions on their missionary journeys. After all, the Hall of Faith featured in Hebrews 11 features three women, something a male writer may overlook. Hebrews is one of the many section of the bible with an unknown author. Today, we can still find hope in these verses written two thousand years ago. In any case, the church believed that the contents of the book spoke for themse… HEBREWS (Lesson 1) INTRODUCTION . 8:1 – 17). 6:8. The author now proves, Hebrews 8:4, that He cannot be a priest in the earthly sanctuary, whence it then follows of itself that He must be so in the heavenly one. Here the author writes to illustrate what this means to the readers. i don't doubt that the author of hebrews believed that, but he was wrong.

when i was a yound man there was a piece or writing that was very popular. Second, the author knows that by using examples from the Old Testament, they can better appeal to the audience. Whoever the author of Hebrews is had authority with the little flock Here's proof Hebrews thirteen verse number seven, says remember them, which have the rule over the author of Hebrews writes to the people. Here the author writes to illustrate what this means to the readers. eccl. There are a handful of contenders. David Alan Black, however, argues Origen believed Paul was the author but someone else was the penman. There are a few reasons why the author may have written to a Jewish audience in these terms. This article will also discuss the context of Hebrews, and why the church decided to include the book in the Scriptural canon, even with the author being an unknown factor. Origen knew through tradition or hearsay that some thought Luke was the author of Hebrews, and that others believed Clement of Rome wrote it. This was taken as evidence that Paul had written it, and some Eastern churches accepted Hebrews as canonical earlier than in the West. And so if either Clement or Luke were involved in the production of the extant book of Hebrews, he would have had a very free hand in working with Paul’s material, to the point that he would be an author, not a translator by any modern definition. A work could apparently still be accepted as authentic and canonical if the exact identity of the author was in doubt, but not if the author claimed to be someone he was not. There is in fact, so much information unknown concerning Hebrews that not only is the writer in question but the date it was made, and even the name, “To [the] Hebrews” is debated as the original title. While we wait for Warren to complete writing his commentary on the next passage, it might interest you that the author of the letter to the Hebrews will remain a mystery. While we can’t say for certain who the true author is, we can deduct from the different style of writing that Paul probably wasn’t the true author. For these reasons, Apollos of Alexandria has been a leading contender for the authorship of Hebrews at least as far back as the great Protestant Reformer, Martin Luther, but he has not been the only contender. (Didn't the author know about confession or the finality of being saved?) Pursue a deeper knowledge of God through self-paced college- and seminary-level online courses in Old and New Testament studies, theology, biblical Greek, and more. Find out more about her at her website. Apostates will burn in hell with the other non-believers. Several theories regarding the author’s identity have been proposed over the centuries, but all of them carry significant obstacles. Books and articles that equip you for deeply biblical thinking and ministry. Plus, you’ll get occasional updates about new courses, free videos, and other valuable resources. There is a consensus that the “brother of James” identifies the author... Get expert commentary on biblical languages, fresh explorations in theology, hand-picked book excerpts, author videos, and info on limited-time sales. The first word of 1 Peter is the author’s name, Petros, and he identifies himself as an apostle of Jesus Christ. Alexandria) as a whole believed that Paul was the author, while the West (i.e. Apollos was “mighty in the Scriptures” and he “refuted the Jews in public, demonstrating by the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ” (Acts 18:24-28). Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. – 220?) Hebrews Its author. But as it doth not appear that this Clement was ever in Palestine, so what reason he should have to leave his own charge now to go thither, no man can imagine. No matter who wrote it, God helped those on the Council of Nicea to decide to include the book in the Scriptural canon. However, most will agree, that in all their efforts, conclusions have been uncertain and many resolve, like Origen, that "God only knows" who is the author. Throughout Hebrews the author attributed all of the Scriptural quotes to God. For instance, the statement in Hebrews 10:14 that those who have been “made perfect” are in the process of being “made holy” sounds very much like Paul’s teaching on justification (e.g., Rom. Apollos was a great defender of the Christian faith, vigorously refuting the opposing Jews in public debate and proving from the Old Testament that Jesus was the Messiah (Acts 18:28). Some traditions hold that the author may have been St. Barnabas or perhaps one of Paul’s other associates or later disciples. But we've come to Mt. And Jesus is the perfect priest (Hebrews … The author knew Timothy and referred to him as “our brother” (Hebrews 13:23, CSB) rather than “my son” as Paul did in (1 Timothy 1:2). However, not all in the East were in agreement. We do not know the author of Hebrews. Because the Jewish audience would have had a rich understanding of Old Testament history, the main purpose of Hebrews is to show how Christ fulfilled prophecies set forth in the Old Testament and to prove the sufficiency of Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord. “The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word.”, Colossians 1:15 – 17 “All these are the work of one and the same Spirit, and he distributes them to each one, just as he determines.”, Hebrews 2:14( – 17) All Rights Reserved. (Q) According to Hebrews 8:4, does the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews believe that Jesus was never on Earth? After all, a number of the apocryphal books and pseudepigraphal books (books written under a false name) did not make the cut for the New Testament canon. After all, if we do not know who penned the book, how can we trust that it’s scripturally sound? The reason for this is that the persecutions described in Acts 8: 1 and Hebrews 10: 32-34 were intense; Jewish Christians outside Palestine suffered relatively less compared to their counterparts in Palestine (Ogden, 1994). While we can’t say for certain who the true author is, we can deduct from the different style of writing that Paul probably wasn’t the true author. Not only was he influenced by Paul, but he was also not a first-generation Christian (Jobes, 40). The author does not introduce himself as Paul typically did (cf. It is impossible for fallen-away Christians to be saved. Volumes have been written and theories have been postulated. She is also the co-author of the Dear Hero duology, which was published by INtense Publications. The author (known to scholars as Pseudo-Cyril) refers to the Gospel of the Hebrews in a polemical dialogue between a monk and Cyril over the nature of Mary, whom the monk contends was a divine Power sent from heaven. The Book Of Hebrews Author: Unknown; The East (i.e. (Didn't the author know about confession or the finality of being saved?) Pauline letters are ordered from longest to shortest, and Hebrews suddenly “pops up,” because scholars have never quite known for sure. Church history until the past few centuries had attributed the authorship to him as well. . Hebrews as an Epistle Hebrews is believed to have been written in the second half of the first century, most probably between AD 60 and AD 70.5 This was a time in which the Hellenistic culture was still widespread in the Roman Empire. In the same way, the author tries to use concrete comparisons from the text they would’ve known best, the Old Testament. I don’t absolutely know that Priscilla wrote Hebrews. 2 Cor. She was the teacher of Apollos and was married to Aquila and traditionally listed among the Seventy Disciples (see Luke 10:1), and also thought to have been the first example of a female preacher. How did the author of Hebrews affirm the continuing validity of the old covenant for his readers? 2:3-4). After all, many of the examples he uses, such as running the race of faith (Hebrews 12:1, 1 Corinthians 9:24-27), and a great deal of the language appears to reflect the style of Paul. Got Questions explains that Luke, given his Greek and Gentile background, may have favored the Septuagint translation over the Masoretic translation and compiled the book, after having heard Paul’s preaching and examples he used in sermons. In Titus 3:13 Paul mentions Apollos . So, when Jews converted to Christianity, they still had ideas ingrained into their minds from the Old Covenant, such as circumcisions. Although entire books have been written on the subject, this article will briefly touch on some of the criteria they used to determine if Hebrews fit, as well as how other books such as the Shepherd of Hermas did not make the cut. – 254? The Book of Hebrews teaches that Jesus was not an angel (a servant of God from heaven) (Hebrews 1). However, not all in the East were in agreement. “God also testified to it by signs, wonders and various miracles, and by gifts of the Holy Spirit distributed according to his will.”, 1 Corinthians 12:11 of The Author . Jesus is God. Traditionally, Paul the Apostle was thought to be the author. Your form could not be submitted. The soteriology of Hebrews is quite consistent with Paul’s own teaching. More than 1,000 of her works have been featured in various publications ranging from Writer's Digest to Keys for Kids. The apostle Paul always made the point that, even though he wasn’t one of the twelve original disciples who walked with Jesus during his earthly life, he was nonetheless an apostle of Jesus Christ, and usually identifies himself as such in his letters. In truth, only God knows!” (Hist. In the first few centuries, the book was grouped together with Paul’s 13 NT letters. The Author of Hebrews While the Book of Hebrews does not reveal its author, it is safe to say with “a great deal of certainty that it was a man who belonged to Hellenistic or Greek-speaking Christianity.”9 Besides that, the Book of Hebrews has been attributed to many authors; some think it was Paul or even 4 Priscilla while other people think it was either Apollos or Barnabas. 1:1; Gal 1:1; Eph. Finally, does the book speak the truth? Some popular verses from this book include: Hebrews 4:12 “For the word of God is alive and active. Even more so, he was a Jewish Christian that had also been heavily influenced by the Greco-Roman culture of the era. Although many scholars have debated the authorship of various books of the Bible, Hebrews is the only one that does not have a majority rule as to who wrote it. Paul knew Apollos personally, and encouraged him in his ministry (1 Cor. The author was likely a close associate of Paul, The author was able to write in a rhetorically ornate Greek style, The author had become a Christian out of Judaism. Conjectures as to the author have ranged from the Apostle Paul, who wrote at least thirteen books in the New Testament, to Priscilla, a friend of Paul’s who accompanied him during part of his ministry. it says, amongst other things:
Speak your truth quietly and clearly;
and listen to others,
even the dull and the ignorant;
they too have their story. “The Son is the image of the invisible God. Clearly, like Paul, the author knew his Bible well, and he was a good teacher. Rome) was much less willing to accept Pauline authorship. The author of the letter to the Hebrews does not give his name, so a number of names have been offered throughout the years. But, as I have said, there was a human author. Yet, as we saw in yesterday’s post, the author of Hebrews is making a case for his audience that true faith is the foundation of our hope and it requires us to trust that which we cannot see. Over them, the author of Hebrews had. 1:1; and 2 Tim. Get updates from Zondervan Academic directly in your inbox. First, in the earliest manuscript editions of the New Testament books, Hebrews is included after Romans among the books written by the apostle Paul. 3.38.2). The author’s understanding of the doctrine of salvation was highly compatible with what the apostle Paul taught, though creatively distinctive. And all this has nothing to do with Gentiles (all non-Hebrew people) because Gentiles were never under the Law of Moses to begin with, and never will be. First, he states that the ancients who were commended, received this commendation because they had true faith. Footnotes 1 The epistle was written some time prior to 70 A.D., before the Romans destroyed the Temple. But as it doth not appear that this Clement was ever in Palestine, so what reason he should have to leave his own charge now to go thither, no man can imagine. So, regarding the author of Hebrews, we’ve seen that he was (1) a man, (2) a second-generation believer (probably not Paul), (3) who may have chosen to remain anonymous to echo the mysterious nature of one of the main characters in his book, Melchizedek. 13:22). The author of Hebrews extensively argues that God had ‘liberated’ (freed) the ethnic/cultural/religious line of Hebrew people from the Law of Moses to enter into God’s rest (Hebrews 3-4). Ultimately, the author of Hebrews was God the Holy Ghost; the human writer is anonymous. Hebrews, as one may guess from the title, is written to the Hebrews, particularly Jewish people who had converted to Christianity during the first century, prior to the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD. According to James 1:1, the letter is written by James himself. he's writing to writes to the Hebrews and gives them instruction about who has rule. It is believed that the intended readers lived in the region of Palestine. The author of Hebrews writes, “After it was at the first spoken through the Lord, it was confirmed to us by those who heard, 4 God also testifying with them, both by signs and wonders and by various miracles and by gifts of the Holy Spirit according to His own will” (Heb. Yea, he desired to be restored unto them as one that had been with them before. Cyril condemns the monk's teaching as a heresy, which the author attributes to Carpocrates, Satornilus, and Ebionites. The author of Hebrews believed that he was living in the "last days." Alexandria) as a whole believed that Paul was the author, while the West (i.e. But ultimately, we do not have a conclusive answer to who wrote this book. The Book of Hebrews is one of the disputed books of the Bible when it comes to authorship. In spite of all this evidence for Pauline authorship, few New Testament scholars today believe Paul wrote it. Answer: Theologically speaking, scholars generally regard the book of Hebrews to be second in importance only to Paul’s letter to the Romans in the New Testament. However, the book also seems to miss some of the hallmarks of this author that we see in other books. So we cannot be sure. . 1:12; 3:4 – 6, 22; 4:6; 16:12). 13:22). .”. Some may read the book of Hebrews with some skepticism. In short, not exactly. Sinai, which he had described in the verses just before, that terrifying mountain that Moses, even Moses who was invited up to the mountain was fearful about ascending. Because of this, a possible author is Apollos, a native of Alexandria, according to Acts 18:24.. Why Apollos might have been the author of Hebrews. It seems very likely that the author was a Jewish Christian. Even centuries earlier in the fourth century, the church of Rome did not believe Paul wrote Hebrews, possibly retaining a latent memory of the actual author (Eusebius, Hist. “Since the children have flesh and blood, he too shared in their humanity so that by his death he might break the power of him who holds the power of death. 2:3-4). For instance, when Paul talks to a Greek audience, he quotes their philosophers back to them (Acts 17:22-28). Apollos? Letter to the Hebrews, also called Epistle to the Hebrews, abbreviation Hebrews, anonymous New Testament letter traditionally attributed to St. Paul the Apostle but now widely believed to be the work of another Jewish Christian. It seems unlikely that Paul here in 2:3 would refer to himself as simply someone who received the gospel from those who had heard the Lord. Second, both Clement of Alexandria (c. AD 150 – 215) and Origen (AD 185 – 253) claimed a Pauline association for the book but recognized that Paul himself probably did not put pen to paper for this book, even though they did not know the author’s name. “But in fact the ministry Jesus has received is as superior to theirs as the covenant of which he is mediator is superior to the old one, since the new covenant is established on better promises.”, 2 Corinthians 3:6